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Language Reference

Language Reference

Arduino programming language can be divided in three main parts: functions, values (variables and constants), and structure.

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Functions

For controlling the Arduino board and performing computations.

Digital I/O

digitalRead()
digitalWrite()
pinMode()

Analog I/O

analogRead()
analogReference()
analogWrite()

Zero, Due & MKR Family

analogReadResolution()
analogWriteResolution()

Advanced I/O

noTone()
pulseIn()
pulseInLong()
shiftIn()
shiftOut()
tone()

Time

delay()
delayMicroseconds()
micros()
millis()

Math

abs()
constrain()
map()
max()
min()
pow()
sq()
sqrt()

Trigonometry

cos()
sin()
tan()

Characters

isAlpha()
isAlphaNumeric()
isAscii()
isControl()
isDigit()
isGraph()
isHexadecimalDigit()
isLowerCase()
isPrintable()
isPunct()
isSpace()
isUpperCase()
isWhitespace()

Random Numbers

random()
randomSeed()

Bits and Bytes

bit()
bitClear()
bitRead()
bitSet()
bitWrite()
highByte()
lowByte()

External Interrupts

attachInterrupt()
detachInterrupt()

Interrupts

interrupts()
noInterrupts()

Communication

Serial
Stream

USB

Keyboard
Mouse

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Variables

Arduino data types and constants.

Constants

HIGH | LOW
INPUT | OUTPUT | INPUT_PULLUP
LED_BUILTIN
true | false
Floating Point Constants
Integer Constants

Conversion

(unsigned int)
(unsigned long)
byte()
char()
float()
int()
long()
word()

Data Types

array
bool
boolean
byte
char
double
float
int
long
short
size_t
string
String()
unsigned char
unsigned int
unsigned long
void
word

Variable Scope & Qualifiers

const
scope
static
volatile

Utilities

PROGMEM
sizeof()

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Structure

The elements of Arduino (C++) code.

Sketch

loop()
setup()

Control Structure

break
continue
do...while
else
for
goto
if
return
switch...case
while

Further Syntax

#define (define)
#include (include)
/* */ (block comment)
// (single line comment)
; (semicolon)
{} (curly braces)

Arithmetic Operators

% (remainder)
* (multiplication)
+ (addition)
- (subtraction)
/ (division)
= (assignment operator)

Comparison Operators

!= (not equal to)
< (less than)
<= (less than or equal to)
== (equal to)
> (greater than)
>= (greater than or equal to)

Boolean Operators

! (logical not)
&& (logical and)
|| (logical or)

Pointer Access Operators

& (reference operator)
* (dereference operator)

Bitwise Operators

& (bitwise and)
<< (bitshift left)
>> (bitshift right)
^ (bitwise xor)
| (bitwise or)
~ (bitwise not)

Compound Operators

%= (compound remainder)
&= (compound bitwise and)
*= (compound multiplication)
++ (increment)
+= (compound addition)
-- (decrement)
-= (compound subtraction)
/= (compound division)
^= (compound bitwise xor)
|= (compound bitwise or)

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